Ingredient ID 305 
Chinese Pronunciation BIEJIA 
English Name Turtle Shell  
Latin Name Carapax Trionychis  
Aliases ShangJia
Cancers Liver
Identified Compounds

order by name

1. Vitamin D

   C28H44O   396.65

Recipes that contain
  1. 49      GuiSheTang
  2. 62      LiangGenSanCaoTang
  3. 104      LianBoTang
  4. 114      ErChongHeJi
  5. 168      LinBaRouLiuFang
  6. 169      HongBaiJinDanTang
  7. 170      LinBaCanKaoFang
  8. 190      LuanChaoAiFangSan
  9. 195      SaiXianAiFang
  10. 199      ZiGongJiLiuFangSan
  11. 200      ZiGongJiLiuFangSi
  12. 201      ZiGongJiLiuFangWu
  13. 272      FuZhengKangAiTang
  14. 280      GuiSheTang
  15. 285      XiaoAiGaoYao
  16. 288      WuHuTang
  17. 384      LianBaiTang
  18. 458      XiJiaoDiHuangTang
  19. 484      ZiGongJiLiuFangIV
  20. 486      ZiGongJiLiuFangV
  21. 515      GanAiFangIII
  22. 515      GanAiFangIII
  23. 519      GanAiFangVI

Available references (order by impact factor):

1:  Currie SN, Stein PS.
Interruptions of fictive scratch motor rhythms by activation of cutaneous flexion reflex afferents in the turtle.
J Neurosci.    impact factor:   8.955
1989;  9(2): 488-96

2:  Stein PS, Camp AW, Robertson GA, Mortin LI.
Blends of rostral and caudal scratch reflex motor patterns elicited by simultaneous stimulation of two sites in the spinal turtle.
J Neurosci.    impact factor:   8.955
1986;  6(8): 2259-66

3:  Rieppel O.
Turtles as hopeful monsters.
Bioessays.    impact factor:   7.649
2001;  23(11): 987-91

4:  Earhart GM, Stein PS.
Scratch-swim hybrids in the spinal turtle: blending of rostral scratch and forward swim.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
2000;  83(1): 156-65

5:  Juranek J, Currie SN.
Electrically evoked fictive swimming in the low-spinal immobilized turtle.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
2000;  83(1): 146-55

6:  Earhart GM, Stein PS.
Step, swim, and scratch motor patterns in the turtle.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
2000;  84(5): 2181-90

7:  Currie SN, Lee S.
Sensory-evoked pocket scratch motor patterns in the in vitro turtle spinal cord: reduction of excitability by an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
1996;  76(1): 81-92

8:  Currie SN, Stein PS.
Cutaneous stimulation evokes long-lasting excitation of spinal interneurons in the turtle.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
1990;  64(4): 1134-48

9:  Currie SN, Stein PS.
Electrical activation of the pocket scratch central pattern generator in the turtle.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
1988;  60(6): 2122-37

10:  Mortin LI, Keifer J, Stein PS.
Three forms of the scratch reflex in the spinal turtle: movement analyses.
J Neurophysiol.    impact factor:   3.935
1985;  53(6): 1501-16

11:  Mortin LI, Stein PS.
Cutaneous dermatomes for initiation of three forms of the scratch reflex in the spinal turtle.
J Comp Neurol.    impact factor:   3.764
1990;  295(4): 515-29

12:  Feldman CR, Parham JF.
Molecular phylogenetics of emydine turtles: taxonomic revision and the evolution of shell kinesis.
Mol Phylogenet Evol.    impact factor:   3.127
2002;  22(3): 388-98

13:  Gale RW, Bergeron JM, Willingham EJ, Crews D.
Turtle sex determination assay: mass balance and responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl.
Environ Toxicol Chem.    impact factor:   2.462
2002;  21(11): 2477-82

14:  Muyssen BT, Janssen CR.
Multigeneration zinc acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna: implications for water-quality guidelines and ecological risk assessment.
Environ Toxicol Chem.    impact factor:   2.462
2001;  20(9): 2053-60

15:  Jackson DC, Crocker CE, Ultsch GR.
Bone and shell contribution to lactic acid buffering of submerged turtles Chrysemys picta bellii at 3 degrees C.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol.    impact factor:   2.453
2000;  278(6): R1564-71

16:  Prassack SL, Bagatto B, Henry RP.
Effects of temperature and aquatic P(O2) on the physiology and behaviour of Apalone ferox and Chrysemys picta.
J Exp Biol.    impact factor:   2.354
2001;  204(Pt 12): 2185-95

17:  Jackson DC, Goldberger Z, Visuri S, Armstrong RN.
Ionic exchanges of turtle shell in vitro and their relevance to shell function in the anoxic turtle
J Exp Biol.    impact factor:   2.354
1999;  202 (Pt 5): 513-20

18:  Jackson D.
Lactate accumulation in the shell of the turtle Chrysemys picta bellii during anoxia at 3°C and 10°C
J Exp Biol.    impact factor:   2.354
1997;  200(Pt 17): 2295-300

19:  Currie SN, Stein PS.
Glutamate antagonists applied to midbody spinal cord segments reduce the excitability of the fictive rostral scratch reflex in the turtle.
Brain Res.    impact factor:   2.302
1992;  581(1): 91-100

20:  Jackson DC.
How a Turtle's Shell Helps It Survive Prolonged Anoxic Acidosis.
News Physiol Sci.    impact factor:   2.282
2000;  15: 181-185

21:  Ireland LC, Gans C.
The adaptive significance of the flexible shell of the tortoise Malacochersus tornieri.
Anim Behav.    impact factor:   2.148
1972;  20(4): 778-81

22:  Skeen LC, Rolon RR.
Olfactory bulb interconnections in soft shell turtle.
Neurosci Lett.    impact factor:   2.085
1982;  33(3): 223-8

23:  Magliola L.
The effects of estrogen on skeletal calcium metabolism and on plasma parameters of vitellogenesis in the male, three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis).
Gen Comp Endocrinol.    impact factor:   1.912
1984;  54(1): 162-70

24:  Hou L.
Effects of local tissue environment on the differentiation of neural crest cells in turtle, with special reference to understanding the spatial distribution of pigment cells.
Pigment Cell Res.    impact factor:   1.866
1999;  12(2): 81-8

25:  Hou L, Takeuchi T.
Differentiation of extracutaneous melanocytes in embryos of the turtle, Trionyx sinensis japonicus.
Pigment Cell Res.    impact factor:   1.866
1991;  4(4): 158-62

26:  Jackson DC.
Hibernating without oxygen: physiological adaptations of the painted turtle.
J Physiol.    impact factor:   1.773
2002;  543(Pt 3): 731-7

27:  Seymour RS, Kennett R, Christian K.
Osmotic balance in the eggs of the turtle Chelodina rugosa during developmental arrest under water.
Physiol Zool.    impact factor:   1.595
1997;  70(3): 301-6

28:  Jackson DC, Heisler N.
Intracellular and extracellular acid-base and electrolyte status of submerged anoxic turtles at 3 degrees C.
Respir Physiol.    impact factor:   1.575
1983;  53(2): 187-201

29:  Feder ME, Satel SL, Gibbs AG.
Resistance of the shell membrane and mineral layer to diffusion of oxygen and water in flexible-shelled eggs of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).
Respir Physiol.    impact factor:   1.575
1982;  49(3): 179-91

30:  Packard GC, Taigen TL, Packard MJ, Shuman RD.
Water-vapor conductance of testudinian and crocodilian eggs (class reptilia).
Respir Physiol.    impact factor:   1.575
1979;  38(1): 1-10

31:  Ackerman RA.
The respiratory gas exchange of sea turtle nests (Chelonia, Caretta).
Respir Physiol.    impact factor:   1.575
1977;  31(1): 19-38

32:  Barber BJ, Blake NJ, Moyer MA, Rodrick GE.
Larval Sulcascaris sulcata from calico scallops, Argopecten gibbus, along the southeast coast of the United States.
J Parasitol.    impact factor:   1.485
1987;  73(3): 476-80

33:  Burger J, Gibbons JW.
Trace elements in egg contents and egg shells of slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) from the Savannah River Site.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.    impact factor:   1.437
1998;  34(4): 382-6

34:  Loredo GA, Brukman A, Harris MP, Kagle D, Leclair EE, Gutman R, Denney E, Henkelman E, Murray BP, Fallon JF, Tuan RS, Gilbert SF.
Development of an evolutionarily novel structure: fibroblast growth factor expression in the carapacial ridge of turtle embryos.
J Exp Zool.    impact factor:   1.353
2001;  291(3): 274-81

35:  Ting C, Garrelick J, Bowles A.
An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures.
J Acoust Soc Am.    impact factor:   1.352
2002;  111(1 Pt 2): 562-8

36:  Holt PE.
Healing of a surgically induced shell wound in a tortoise.
Vet Rec.    impact factor:   1.173
1981;  108(5): 102

37:  Jackson OF.
Tortoise shell repair over two years.
Vet Rec.    impact factor:   1.173
1978;  102(13): 284-5

38:  Iwasaki S, Asami T, Wanichanon C.
Ultrastructural study of the dorsal lingual epithelium of the soft-shell turtle, Trionyx cartilagineus (Chelonia, Trionychidae).
Anat Rec.    impact factor:   1.111
1996;  246(3): 305-16

39:  Sarnat BG, McNabb E, Glass M.
Growth of the turtle Chrysemys scripta under constant controlled laboratory conditions.
Anat Rec.    impact factor:   1.111
1981;  199(3): 433-9

40:  Homer BL, Li C, Berry KH, Denslow ND, Jacobson ER, Sawyer RH, Williams JE.
Soluble scute proteins of healthy and ill desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii).
Am J Vet Res.    impact factor:   1.103
2001;  62(1): 104-10

41:  Schumacher IM, Rostal DC, Yates RA, Brown DR, Jacobson ER, Klein PA.
Persistence of maternal antibodies against Mycoplasma agassizii in desert tortoise hatchlings.
Am J Vet Res.    impact factor:   1.103
1999;  60(7): 826-31

42:  Meyer W, Kretschmer M, Hoffmann A, Harisch G.
Biochemical and histochemical observations on effects of low-level heavy metal load (lead, cadmium) in different organ systems of the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus L. (Crustacea: Decapoda).
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.    impact factor:   1.06
1991;  21(2): 137-56

43:  Stratton CJ, Erickson TB, Wetzstein HY.
The lipid solubility of fixative, staining and embedding media, and the introduction of LX-112 and poly/bed-812 as dehydrants for epoxy resin embedment.
Tissue Cell.    impact factor:   1.028
1982;  14(1): 13-24

44:  Willard R, Packard GC, Packard MJ, Tucker JK.
The role of the integument as a barrier to penetration of ice into overwintering hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta).
J Morphol.    impact factor:   1.02
2000;  246(2): 150-9

45:  Packard MJ.
Ultrastructural morphology of the shell and shell membrane of eggs of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).
J Morphol.    impact factor:   1.02
1980;  165(2): 187-204

46:  Rainey WT.
Organization of nucleus rotundus, a tectofugal thalamic nucleus in turtles. I. Nissl and Golgi analyses.
J Morphol.    impact factor:   1.02
1979;  160(2): 121-42

47:  Packard GC, Taigen TL, Packard MJ, Boardman TJ.
Water relations of pliable-shelled eggs of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).
Can J Zool.    impact factor:   1.015
1980;  58(8): 1404-11

48:  Berry KH, Christopher MM.
Guidelines for the field evaluation of desert tortoise health and disease.
J Wildl Dis.    impact factor:   .898
2001;  37(3): 427-50

49:  Homer BL, Berry KH, Brown MB, Ellis G, Jacobson ER.
Pathology of diseases in wild desert tortoises from California.
J Wildl Dis.    impact factor:   .898
1998;  34(3): 508-23

50:  Garner MM, Herrington R, Howerth EW, Homer BL, Nettles VF, Isaza R, Shotts EB Jr, Jacobson ER.
Shell disease in river cooters (Pseudemys concinna) and yellow-bellied turtles (Trachemys scripta) in a Georgia (USA) lake.
J Wildl Dis.    impact factor:   .898
1997;  33(1): 78-86

51:  Lovich JE, Gotte SW, Ernst CH, Harshbarger JC, Laemmerzahl AF, Gibbons JW.
Prevalence and histopathology of shell disease in turtles from Lake Blackshear, Georgia.
J Wildl Dis.    impact factor:   .898
1996;  32(2): 259-65

52:  Sarnat BG.
Something of the nature of gross sutural growth.
Ann Plast Surg.    impact factor:   .864
1986;  17(4): 339-49

53:  Jackson DC, Toney VI, Okamoto S.
Lactate distribution and metabolism during and after anoxia in the turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii.
Am J Physiol.    impact factor:   .718
1996;  271(2 Pt 2): R409-16

54:  Dunson WA, Heatwole H.
Effect of relative shell size in turtles on water and electrolyte composition.
Am J Physiol.    impact factor:   .718
1986;  250(6 Pt 2): R1133-7

55:  Silver RB, Jackson DC.
Ionic compensation with no renal response to chronic hypercapnia in chrysemys picta bellii.
Am J Physiol.    impact factor:   .718
1986;  251(6 Pt 2): R1228-34

56:  Rieder N.
[Ultrastructure of the carapax cuticle of Triops cancriformis Bosc. (Notostraca, Crustacea)]
Z Naturforsch [B].    impact factor:   .635
1972;  27(5): 579

57:  Ho SP, Hsu TY, Che MH, Wang WS.
Antibacterial effect of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol against aquatic animal bacteria.
J Vet Med Sci.    impact factor:   .567
2000;  62(5): 479-85

58:  Kitajima S, Utsunomiya K, Tamura T, Ariyoshi T.
Protective effects of the nucleic acid components on CCL4-induced liver injury in rats.
Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol.    impact factor:   .495
1994;  85(3): 329-35

59:  Kitajima S, Ogawa N, Ariyoshi T.
Effect of pretreatment of rats with uracil on liver injuries induced by D-galactosamine and allyl alcohol.
Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol.    impact factor:   .495
1994;  85(1): 14-20

60:  Golet WJ, Haines TA.
Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as monitors for mercury contamination of aquatic environments.
Environ Monit Assess.    impact factor:   .485
2001;  71(3): 211-20

61:  Acuna-Mesen R, Segura-Solis S, Alvarado L, Sachsse W.
[Ultrastructure of the eggshell of hatched and non hatched eggs of Kinosternon angustipons (Testudinata: Kinosternidae)]
Rev Biol Trop.    impact factor:   .121
2001;  49(3-4): 1121-30

62:  McCord WP, Joseph-Ouni M, Lamar WW.
A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys.
Rev Biol Trop.    impact factor:   .121
2001;  49(2): 715-64

63:  Gilbert SF, Loredo GA, Brukman A, Burke AC.
Morphogenesis of the turtle shell: the development of a novel structure in tetrapod evolution.
Evol Dev.    impact factor:   0
2001;  3(2): 47-58

64:  Clark K, Bender G, Murray BP, Panfilio K, Cook S, Davis R, Murnen K, Tuan RS, Gilbert SF.
Evidence for the neural crest origin of turtle plastron bones.
Genesis.    impact factor:   0
2001;  31(3): 111-7

65:  Wang ZZ, Lin JM, Ye GM, Quan SC, Hu JH.
[Identification of turtle shell, tortoise plastron and their counterfeit products]
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.    impact factor:   0
2000;  25(5): 259-62

66:  Jackson DC.
Living without oxygen: lessons from the freshwater turtle.
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol.    impact factor:   0
2000;  125(3): 299-315

67:  Jackson DC, Ramsey AL, Paulson JM, Crocker CE, Ultsch GR.
Lactic acid buffering by bone and shell in anoxic softshell and painted turtles.
Physiol Biochem Zool.    impact factor:   0
2000;  73(3): 290-7

68:  Sahoo G, Sahoo RK, Mohanty-Hejmadi P.
Calcium metabolism in olive ridley turtle eggs during embryonic development.
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol.    impact factor:   0
1998;  121(1): 91-7

69:  Wu P, Zhou K, Xu L, Teng J.
[Molecular identification of the Chinese drug turtle shells]
Yao Xue Xue Bao.    impact factor:   0
1998;  33(4): 304-9

70:  Wang D, Wang Z, Yu C.
Endometriosis treated by the method of resolving blood stasis to eliminate obstruction in the lower-jiao.
J Tradit Chin Med.    impact factor:   0
1998;  18(1): 7-11

71:  Mitrus S.
Ultrastructure of the calcareous layer eggshell of the turtle Emys orbicularis (L.). Preliminary study.
Rocz Akad Med Bialymst.    impact factor:   0
1997;  42 Suppl 2: 199-203

72:  Casares M, Rubel A, Honegger RE.
Observations on the female reproductive cycle of captive giant tortoises (Geochelone spp.) using ultrasound scanning.
J Zoo Wildl Med.    impact factor:   0
1997;  28(3): 267-73

73:  Zhang T, Li T, Jiang W, Li C, Zhou J.
[Outward character and inner quality of Bombyx Batryticatus, Carapax Trionycis, Squama Manitis and endothelium corneum Gigeriae Galli after frying]
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.    impact factor:   0
1997;  22(8): 471-3, 511

74:  Sahoo G, Mohapatra BK, Sahoo RK, Mohanty-Hejmadi P.
Ultrastructure and characteristics of eggshells of the olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) from Gahirmatha, India.
Acta Anat (Basel).    impact factor:   0
1996;  156(4): 261-7

75:  Kitajima S, Ogawa N, Ariyoshi T.
Protective effect of Trionyx carapax on CCl4-induced hepatic injury is mediated by uracil.
Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol.    impact factor:   0
1994;  84(2): 203-22

76:  Acuna-Mesen RA.
[Morphometric variation and ecologic characteristics of the habitat of the Kinosternon scorpioides turtle in Costa Rica (Chelonia,Kinosternidae)]
Rev Bras Biol.    impact factor:   0
1994;  54(3): 537-47

77:  Wang L, Zhang X, Wu Z, Li L.
[A comparative study of 6 kinds of nourishing glue]
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.    impact factor:   0
1992;  17(1): 48-50 inside back cover

78:  Muller M, Lang J, Schawalder P, Rytz U.
[Celiotomy in tortoises: remedy of choice for dystocia (laying distress) and gastrointestinal foreign bodies]
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd.    impact factor:   0
1989;  131(8): 485-6, 491-3

79:  Palmer BD, Guillette LJ Jr.
Histology and functional morphology of the female reproductive tract of the tortoise Gopherus polyphemus.
Am J Anat.    impact factor:   0
1988;  183(3): 200-11

80:  Miao YL.
[Effects of tortoise plastion and tortoise-shell on pathology of the thyroid, thymus, adrenal and spleen of hyperthyroidism-type yin-deficiency rats]
Zhong Yao Tong Bao.    impact factor:   0
1988;  13(3): 42-4, 64

81:  Yang MX, Yang Y.
[Effects of tortoise plastion and tortoise-shell on body weight, water intake, urination, plasma viscosity, etc., of hyperthyroidism-type yin-deficient rats]
Zhong Yao Tong Bao.    impact factor:   0
1988;  13(2): 41-3, 64

82:  Yang MX.
[Comparative study on pharmacological function of back-shell and plastron of tortoise]
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.    impact factor:   0
1988;  8(5): 279-81, 262

83:  Bryan AM, Stone WB, Olafsson PG.
Disposition of toxic PCB congeners in snapping turtle eggs: expressed as toxic equivalents of TCDD.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.    impact factor:   0
1987;  39(5): 791-6

84:  Crowe A, Linnartz P.
Studies on the excitability of the central program generator in the spinal cord of the terrapin Pseudemys scripta elegans.
Comp Biochem Physiol A.    impact factor:   0
1985;  81(4): 905-9

85:  Zhang YM.
[Comparison between the chemical constituents of tortoise plastron and tortoise shell]
Zhong Yao Tong Bao.    impact factor:   0
1984;  9(5): 12-3

86:  Sarnat BG.
Differential growth and healing of bones and teeth.
Clin Orthop.    impact factor:   0
1984;  (183): 219-37

87:  Rosskopf WJ Jr, Woerpel RW.
Repair of shell damage in tortoises.
Mod Vet Pract.    impact factor:   0
1981;  62(12): 938-9

88:  Rouault J, Blanc CP.
[Notes on the reptiles of Tunisia. V. Biometric characteristics of Mauremys caspica leprosa (Schweigger, 1812) (Reptilia: Emydidae)]
Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis.    impact factor:   0
1978;  55(3): 337-57

89:  Wacha RS, Christiansen JL.
Additional notes on the coccidian parasites of the soft-shell turtle, Trionyx spiniferus Le Sueur, in Iowa, with a description of Eimeria vesicostieda sp. n.
J Protozool.    impact factor:   0
1977;  24(3): 357-9

90:  Jenkins NK.
Chemical compositions of the eggs of the crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae).
Comp Biochem Physiol A.    impact factor:   0
1975;  51(4): 891-5

91:  Likeman R.
Letter: Turtle meat and cone shell poisoning.
P N G Med J.    impact factor:   0
1975;  18(2): 125-6

92:  Frye FL, Schuchman SM.
Salpingotomy and cesarian delivery of impacted ova in a tortoise.
Vet Med Small Anim Clin.    impact factor:   0
1974;  69(4): 454-7

93:  Frye FL.
Clinical evaluation of a rapid polymerizing epoxy resin for repair of shell defects in tortoises.
Vet Med Small Anim Clin.    impact factor:   0
1973;  68(1): 51-3

94:  Northway RB.
Repair of a fractured shell and lacerated cornea in a tortoise.
Vet Med Small Anim Clin.    impact factor:   0
1970;  65(10): 944


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