Ingredient ID 402 
Chinese Pronunciation SONGLUO 
English Name Sun-lo  
Latin Name Usnea  
Aliases TianPengCao
Cancers General  
Identified Compounds

order by name

1. Diffractaic Acid

   C20H22O7   374.39

2. Ergosterol

   C28H44O   396.65

3. Usnic Acid

   C18H16O7   344.32
NSC# 5889 Activity (<1uM)
NSC# 5890 Activity (<10uM)

4. Episterol

   C28H46O   398.67

5. Lichenin


6. Lichesterol

   C28H44O   396.65

Recipes that contain

    Available references (order by impact factor):

    1:  Lo W, Black HS.
    Inhibition of carcinogen formation in skin irradiated with ultraviolet light.
    Nature.    impact factor:   29.491
    1973;  246(5434): 489-91

    2:  Black HS, Lo WB.
    Formation of a carcinogen in human skin irradiated with ultraviolet light.
    Nature.    impact factor:   29.491
    1971;  234(5327): 306-8

    3:  Pietra G, Mortarini R, Parmiani G, Anichini A.
    Phases of apoptosis of melanoma cells, but not of normal melanocytes, differently affect maturation of myeloid dendritic cells.
    Cancer Res.    impact factor:   8.614
    2001;  61(22): 8218-26

    4:  Franklin WA, Lo KM, Haseltine WA.
    Alkaline lability of fluorescent photoproducts produced in ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA.
    J Biol Chem.    impact factor:   7.666
    1982;  257(22): 13535-43

    5:  Lo KY, Bessman MJ.
    An antimutator deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. I. Purification and properties of the enzyme.
    J Biol Chem.    impact factor:   7.666
    1976;  251(8): 2475-9

    6:  Schonbaum GR, Lo S.
    Interaction of peroxidases with aromatic peracids and alkyl peroxides. Product analysis.
    J Biol Chem.    impact factor:   7.666
    1972;  247(10): 3353-60

    7:  Hammerberg C, Duraiswamy N, Cooper KD.
    Temporal correlation between UV radiation locally-inducible tolerance and the sequential appearance of dermal, then epidermal, class II MHC+CD11b+ monocytic/macrophagic cells.
    J Invest Dermatol.    impact factor:   4.903
    1996;  107(5): 755-63

    8:  Malinin GI, Lo HK, Hornicek FJ, Malinin TI.
    Ultrastructural modification of the plasma membrane in HUT 102 lymphoblasts by long-wave ultraviolet light, psoralen, and PUVA.
    J Invest Dermatol.    impact factor:   4.903
    1990;  95(1): 97-103

    9:  Lo WB, Black HS.
    Formation of cholesterol-derived photoproducts in human skin.
    J Invest Dermatol.    impact factor:   4.903
    1972;  58(5): 278-83

    10:  Lo CW, Paris PW, Holick MF.
    Indian and Pakistani immigrants have the same capacity as Caucasians to produce vitamin D in response to ultraviolet irradiation.
    Am J Clin Nutr.    impact factor:   3.958
    1986;  44(5): 683-5

    11:  Eom YW, Cho SH, Hwang JS, Yoon SB, Na DS, Kang IJ, Kang SS, Song WK, Kim JH.
    Rac and p38 kinase mediate 5-lipoxygenase translocation and cell death.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun.    impact factor:   3.161
    2001;  284(1): 126-32

    12:  Noonan FP, Hoffman HA.
    Susceptibility to immunosuppression by ultraviolet B radiation in the mouse.
    Immunogenetics.    impact factor:   2.899
    1994;  39(1): 29-39

    13:  Berglund DL, Eversman S.
    Flow cytometric measurement of pollutant stresses on algal cells.
    Cytometry.    impact factor:   2.843
    1988;  9(2): 150-5

    14:  Fischer SM, Lo HH, Gordon GB, Seibert K, Kelloff G, Lubet RA, Conti CJ.
    Chemopreventive activity of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and indomethacin against ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis.
    Mol Carcinog.    impact factor:   2.589
    1999;  25(4): 231-40

    15:  Heibel E, Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I I.
    Genetic variation of Usnea filipendula (Parmeliaceae) populations in western Germany investigated by RAPDs suggests reinvasion from various sources.
    Am J Bot.    impact factor:   2.383
    1999;  86(5): 753

    16:  Lualdi M, Colombo A, Farina B, Tomatis S, Marchesini R.
    A phantom with tissue-like optical properties in the visible and near infrared for use in photomedicine.
    Lasers Surg Med.    impact factor:   2.348
    2001;  28(3): 237-43

    17:  Newcomb R, Pierce AR, Kano T, Meng W, Bosque-Hamilton P, Taylor L, Curthoys N, Lo EH.
    Characterization of mitochondrial glutaminase and amino acids at prolonged times after experimental focal cerebral ischemia.
    Brain Res.    impact factor:   2.302
    1998;  813(1): 103-11

    18:  Lo CH, Stelson H.
    Interference by polysucrose in protein determination by the Lowry method.
    Anal Biochem.    impact factor:   2.146
    1972;  45(1): 331-6

    19:  Lo RY, MacDonald LE.
    Pasteurella haemolytica is highly sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation.
    Mutat Res.    impact factor:   2.107
    1991;  263(3): 159-63

    20:  Black HS, Jones JS, Lo WB.
    Metabolism of actinic skin tumors: incorporation of 14C-acetate into lipids.
    Lipids.    impact factor:   2.04
    1974;  9(4): 292-4

    21:  Cheng CT, Lo V, Chen J, Chen WC, Lin CY, Lin HC, Yang CH, Sheh L.
    Synthesis and DNA nicking studies of a novel cyclic peptide: cyclo[Lys-Trp-Lys-Ahx-].
    Bioorg Med Chem.    impact factor:   1.799
    2001;  9(6): 1493-8

    22:  Kuo TT, Lo SK, Chan HL.
    Immunohistochemical analysis of dermal mononuclear cell infiltrates in cutaneous lupus erythematosus, polymorphous light eruption, lymphocytic infiltration of Jessner, and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: a comparative differential study.
    J Cutan Pathol.    impact factor:   1.718
    1994;  21(5): 430-6

    23:  Garty J, Kauppi M, Kauppi A.
    Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene.
    Environ Res.    impact factor:   1.617
    1995;  69(2): 132-43

    24:  Archibeque SL, Burns JC, Huntington GB.
    Nitrogen metabolism of beef steers fed endophyte-free tall fescue hay: effects of ruminally protected methionine supplementation.
    J Anim Sci.    impact factor:   1.569
    2002;  80(5): 1344-51

    25:  Archibeque SL, Burns JC, Huntington GB.
    Urea flux in beef steers: effects of forage species and nitrogen fertilization.
    J Anim Sci.    impact factor:   1.569
    2001;  79(7): 1937-43

    26:  Shell TM, Early RJ, Carpenter JR, Vincent DL, Buckley BA.
    Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: I. Relationships of body fluid compartments, packed cell volume, plasma urea nitrogen, and estrogens to prenatal development.
    J Anim Sci.    impact factor:   1.569
    1995;  73(5): 1289-302

    27:  Shell TM, Early RJ, Carpenter JR, Buckley BA.
    Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: II. Residual effects on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin, and calf growth.
    J Anim Sci.    impact factor:   1.569
    1995;  73(5): 1303-9

    28:  Kessel D, Lo J, Jeffers R, Fowlkes JB, Cain C.
    Modes of photodynamic vs. sonodynamic cytotoxicity.
    J Photochem Photobiol B.    impact factor:   1.529
    1995;  28(3): 219-21

    29:  Hornicek FJ, Malinin GI, Malinin TI, Lo HK.
    Turnover of phospholipids in HUT 102 lymphoblasts and chromatographic characterization of purified lecithins after their exposure to long-wave UV light, psoralen, and UV light and psoralen.
    J Photochem Photobiol B.    impact factor:   1.529
    1992;  12(4): 359-74

    30:  Okuyama E, Umeyama K, Yamazaki M, Kinoshita Y, Yamamoto Y.
    Usnic acid and diffractaic acid as analgesic and antipyretic components of Usnea diffracta.
    Planta Med.    impact factor:   1.438
    1995;  61(2): 113-5

    31:  Kheir YM, Patel MB.
    Isolation of (+) usnic acid from Sudanese drug Usnea molliuscula.
    Planta Med.    impact factor:   1.438
    1975;  27(2): 171-2

    32:  Garty J, Kauppi M, Kauppi A.
    The Influence of Air Pollution on the Concentration of Airborne Elementsand on the Production of Stress-Ethylene in the Lichen Usnea hirta(L.) Weber em. Mot. Transplanted in Urban Sites in Oulu, N. Finland
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.    impact factor:   1.437
    1997;  32(3): 285-90

    33:  Bizzarri M, Catizone A, Pompei M, Chiappini L, Curini L, Lagana A.
    Determination of urinary tryptophan and its metabolites along the nicotinic acid pathway by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
    Biomed Chromatogr.    impact factor:   1.145
    1990;  4(1): 24-7

    34:  Rossbach M, Jayasekera R, Kniewald G, Thang NH.
    Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.
    Sci Total Environ.    impact factor:   1.126
    1999;  232(1-2): 59-66

    35:  Poblet A, Andrade S, Scagliola M, Vodopivez C, Curtosi A, Pucci A, Marcovecchio J.
    The use of epilithic Antarctic lichens (Usnea aurantiacoatra and U. antartica) to determine deposition patterns of heavy metals in the Shetland Islands, Antarctica.
    Sci Total Environ.    impact factor:   1.126
    1997;  207(2-3): 187-94

    36:  Yamamoto Y, Miura Y, Kinoshita Y, Higuchi M, Yamada Y, Murakami A, Ohigashi H, Koshimizu K.
    Screening of tissue cultures and thalli of lichens and some of their active constituents for inhibition of tumor promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).    impact factor:   1.117
    1995;  43(8): 1388-90

    37:  Nishikawa Y, Oki K, Takahashi K, Kurono G, Fukuoka F.
    Studies on the water soluble constituents of lichens. II. Antitumor polysaccharides of Lasallia, Usnea, and Cladonia species.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).    impact factor:   1.117
    1974;  22(11): 2692-702

    38:  Ingolfsdottir K.
    Usnic Acid.
    Phytochemistry.    impact factor:   1.106
    2002;  61(7): 729-36

    39:  Teixeira AZ, Iacomini M, Gorin PA.
    An unusual glucomannan from Tornabenia intricata.
    Phytochemistry.    impact factor:   1.106
    1992;  31(10): 3467-70

    40:  Figueira R, Pacheco AM, Sousa AJ, Catarino F.
    Development and calibration of epiphytic lichens as saltfall biomonitors--dry-deposition modelling.
    Environ Pollut.    impact factor:   1.078
    2002;  120(1): 69-78

    41:  Carreras HA, Pignata ML.
    Biomonitoring of heavy metals and air quality in Cordoba City, Argentina, using transplanted lichens.
    Environ Pollut.    impact factor:   1.078
    2002;  117(1): 77-87

    42:  Carreras HA, Pignata ML.
    Comparison among air pollutants, meteorological conditions and some chemical parameters in the transplanted lichen Usnea amblyoclada.
    Environ Pollut.    impact factor:   1.078
    2001;  111(1): 45-52

    43:  Kinoshita Y, Yamamoto Y, Kurokawa T, Yoshimura I.
    Influences of nitrogen sources on usnic acid production in a cultured Mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta (L.) Wigg.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.    impact factor:   1.039
    2001;  65(8): 1900-2

    44:  Besnard V, Federighi M, Declerq E, Jugiau F, Cappelier JM.
    Environmental and physico-chemical factors induce VBNC state in Listeria monocytogenes.
    Vet Res.    impact factor:   .941
    2002;  33(4): 359-70

    45:  Huneck S, Follmann G.
    [On the chemistry of Chilean liches. XVII. On the contents of Usnea pusilla (RAES.) RAES., Stereocaulon ramulosum (SWANS.) RAEUSCH. and Arthothelium pacificum FOLLM]
    Z Naturforsch B.    impact factor:   .744
    1967;  22(4): 461

    46:  Goncalo S.
    Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis.
    Contact Dermatitis.    impact factor:   .741
    1987;  16(2): 84-6

    47:  Marcano V, Rodriguez-Alcocer V, Morales Mendez A.
    Occurrence of usnic acid in Usnea laevis Nylander (lichenized ascomycetes) from the Venezuelan Andes.
    J Ethnopharmacol.    impact factor:   .687
    1999;  66(3): 343-6

    48:  Tsoganenko NM, Kiseleva MN, Alekseev AV, Dodonova NIa, Chunaev AS.
    [Photodimerization of uracil in films and their use for dosimetry of genetically active ultraviolet irradiation]
    Biofizika.    impact factor:   .303
    1987;  32(1): 7-11

    49:  Fung WK, Tam SC, Ho KM, Lam P, Lo KK.
    Porphyria cutanea tarda and melioidosis.
    Hong Kong Med J.    impact factor:   0
    2001;  7(2): 197-200

    50:  Setti E, Musumeci R.
    [A visual displayer for publishing radiologic images on the World Wide Web]
    Radiol Med (Torino).    impact factor:   0
    2000;  99(5): 383-7

    51:  Abo-Khatwa AN, al-Robai AA, al-Jawhari DA.
    Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria.
    Nat Toxins.    impact factor:   0
    1996;  4(2): 96-102

    52:  Periera EC, Nascimento SC, Lima RC, Silva NH, Oliveira AF, Bandeira E, Boitard M, Beriel H, Vicente C, Legaz ME.
    Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity.
    Tokai J Exp Clin Med.    impact factor:   0
    1994;  19(1-2): 47-52

    53:  Dobrescu D, Tanasescu M, Mezdrea A, Ivan C, Ordosch E, Neagoe F, Rizeanu A, Trifu L, Enescu V.
    Contributions to the complex study of some lichens-Usnea genus. Pharmacological studies on Usnea barbata and Usnea hirta species.
    Rom J Physiol.    impact factor:   0
    1993;  30(1-2): 101-7

    54:  Jia M, Lu X, Yang J.
    [Morphology and histology of Usnea Longissima Ach]
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.    impact factor:   0
    1992;  17(9): 522-3, 574

    55:  Rowe JG, Saenz MT, Garcia MD.
    [Antibacterial activity of some lichens from southern Spain]
    Ann Pharm Fr.    impact factor:   0
    1989;  47(2): 89-94

    56:  Carlson RP, O'Neill-Davis L, Calhoun W, Datko L, Musser JH, Kreft AF, Chang JY.
    Effect of a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)/cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibitor, WY-47, 288, on cutaneous models of inflammation.
    Agents Actions.    impact factor:   0
    1989;  26(3-4): 319-28

    57:  Haseltine WA, Gordon LK, Lindan C, Lippke J, Brash D, Lo KM, Royer-Pokora B.
    New approaches to DNA damage and repair: the ultraviolet light example.
    Basic Life Sci.    impact factor:   0
    1982;  20: 315-22

    58:  Black HS, Tsurumaru Y, Lo WB.
    Rapid photolysis of cholesterol.
    Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol.    impact factor:   0
    1975;  10(1): 177-80

    59:  Lo WB, Black HS.
    Effects of cholesterol-derived photoproducts on the incorporation of 14 C-acetate into human skin lipids.
    Experientia.    impact factor:   0
    1971;  27(12): 1397-8


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